Rotation of the sacrum superiorly and anteriorly

Rotation of the sacrum superiorly and anteriorly whilst the coccyx moves posteriorly relative to the ilium is sometimes called "nutation" (from the Latin term nutatio which means "nodding") and the reverse, postero-inferior motion of the sacrum relative to the ilium whilst the coccyx moves anteriorly, "counter-nutation".[6] In upright vertebrates, the sacrum is capable of slight independent movement along the sagittal plane. On bending backward the top (base) of the sacrum moves forward relative to the iliuThe sacrum refers to all of the parts combined. Its parts are called sacral vertebrae when referred individually. Variations In some cases the sacrum will consist of six pieces or be reduced in number to four.[8] The bodies of the first and second vertebrae may fail to unite. Sometimes the uppermost transverse tubercles are not joined to the rest of the ala on one or both sides, or the sacral canal may be open throughout a considerable part of its length, in consequence of the imperfect development of the laminae and spinous processes. The sacrum also varies considerably with respect to its degree of curvature. Sexual dimorphism The sacrum is noticeably sexually dimorphic (differently shaped in males and females). In the female the sacrum is shorter and wider than in the male; the lower half forms a greater angle with the upper; the upper half is nearly straight, the lower half presenting the greatest amount of curvature. The bone is also directed more obliquely backward; this increases the size of the pelvic cavity and renders the sacrovertebral angle more prominent. In the male the curvature is more evenly distributed over the whole length of the bone, and is altogether larger than in the female. Development The somites that give rise to the vertebral column begin to develop from head to tail along the length of the notochord. At day 20 of embryogenesis the first four pairs of somites appear in the future occipital bone region. Developing at the rate of three or four a day, the next eight pairs form in the cervical region to develop into the cervical vertebrae; the next twelve pairs will form the thoracic vertebrae; the next five pairs the lumbar vertebrae and by about day 29 the sacral somites will appear to develop into the sacral vertebrae; finally on day 30 the last three pairs will form the coccyx.[9] Clinical significancem; on bending forward the top moves back.[7]